Borderline and precursor lesion of thyroid neoplasms: A missing link.


In thyroid tumor classification by the World Health Organization published in 2004, there is no borderline (uncertain) tumors and in situ (non-invasive) carcinomas in their diagnostic schema, a missing link. These steps are essential for multi-step carcinogenesis from normal cells to clear cut malignant tumors. However, these steps remain unexplained in  many reviews and text books on thyroid carcinogenesis. My review “Borderline and precursor lesion of thyroid neoplasms: A missing link.” published in Journal of Basic and Clinical Medicine try to clarify this  missing link of thyroid tumor classification. You may find there are heterogenous thyroid lesions categolized in this mysterious area, which are possible source of confusion and observer disagreements in thyroid tumor diagnoses. Kakudoborderline2015JBCM

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